Meal Planning for the Busy

If you want to be happy, healthy and able to do up your jeans forever more, you won’t get around preparing your own meals. No, really. It doesn’t matter what claims you see printed on the packaging of ready meals: They have one thing going for them - convenience. Nothing beats a home-cooked meal, and it really isn’t as complicated and time-consuming as you might expect. Just don’t overthink it.

Why are apples so fabulous?

An apple a day keeps the doctor away


Photo by  Roberta Sorge  on  Unsplash

 

A cliché, I know, but actually there seems to be a lot of truth in this old saying. A 2011 review of the existing research on apples found that apples have been associated with beneficial effects on risk markers (such as cholesterol) and the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma and Alzheimer’s disease. There is also research to suggest that they may help prevent cognitive decline, diabetes, weight gain, osteoporosis, lung function and gastro-intestinal problems. A recent (2016) study found that apple consumption is inversely associated with all-cause and specific disease mortality in the elderly. In plain English: The more apples elderly people eat, the longer they live. I’m sure it is safe to say that apples are beneficial for younger people as well then. (Note: Association is not causation – just because two things occur together doesn’t mean that one causes the other.)

So what is it about apples that makes them so fabulous?

Different things, not just one.

First of all, they contain lots of antioxidants. Those are nutrients that have the ability to safely disarm free radicals – a normal byproduct of metabolism, but in this day and age increased by environmental and dietary toxins. Free radicals lead to cell damage, so you want to load up on those antioxidants. Apples contain vitamin C and quercetin, but also catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid – some of the lesser known antioxidants, which give apples particularly strong antioxidant power. Apples also contain an unusually high concentration of phenolic compounds, a class of biochemically substances belonging to the flavonoid group, which are really, really good for us.  

The above mentioned quercetin (also contained in onions, black tea, berries, and peppers) is anti-inflammatory and is used to fight cardiovascular disease, allergies and asthma, insulin resistance and diabetes, stomach ulcers, viral infections, cognitive impairment and even chronic fatigue syndrome.  

Apples also contain pectin, a soluble fibre. Soluble fibre develops a gel-like consistency in the gut because it absorbs water. It bulks up stool and allows the muscles of the gut to ‘grab’ on to waste and move it along. It’s ability to absorb water means that pectin can also help reduce the incidence of diarrhoea.  

But here’s the thing: It’s not only through quercetin that apples help reduce inflammation – and remember, inflammation is now thought to be at the root of all chronic disease. Pectin feeds beneficial gut bacteria and they then produce – as a thank you – anti-inflammatory chemicals for us as well. In rats at least, apple-pectin has been found to achieve that, thus suppressing weight and fat gain (2016).

Lastly there’s boron. You may have spotted the mention of osteoporosis above. Boron is a mineral that has bone-building properties and is important for the prevention of osteoporosis (bone loss) and arthritis (joint inflammation). As it happens, apples are one of the best sources of dietary boron. As a mineral, this is not destroyed by heat and unless you boil the apples and throw out the water, it’ll still be there if you prefer your apples cooked.

How about the other nutrients: Yes, you will lose probably all vitamin C and levels of other antioxidants will be reduced, but you’ll still get some. Pectin, however, is heat resistant.

I frequently recommend stewed apples for those of my clients who suffer from intestinal hyperpermeability (‘leaky gut’) and that is due to its pectin. I want my clients to feed their good bacteria so that they can make their contribution in healing the gut. It’s really rare that anyone refuses to eat stewed apples with cinnamon. I mean, why would you?  

This week’s Nutrilicious News will have a delicious recipe for a healthier apple crumble. It’s not too late to sign up!

 


 

 

What has cholesterol ever done for us?

It’s National Cholesterol Month! It was probably created (who does decide these things?) to raise awareness to the ‘dangers’ of cholesterol. Today I’d like to make a plea for cholesterol – probably not what National Cholesterol Month is meant to be about, but here goes …

What comes to mind when you hear the word “cholesterol”? Most likely eggs, bacon, lard, clogged arteries, heart attack, stroke. Something along those lines.

Now for a list of positive associations …

Anything?

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Cholesterol has had a really bad rap over the last 60 years or so, so much so that hardly anyone can think of anything good to say about it. So, is cholesterol a dangerous substance that somehow accumulates in our arteries, only to kill us in the end? What is it? Where does it come from? What does it do?

 

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a lipid, a waxy substance produced in the liver and all body cells except nerve cells, but there is a special type of brain cells that makes cholesterol, too, because the body’s cholesterol cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. “So, hang on,” you might say “the body makes it? If it’s so bad for us, why?” Exactly. The body does of course produce lots of substances that are bad for us – waste products that occur in normal metabolism and that need to be detoxified -, but cholesterol is not one of them. It has a purpose, several actually, and it is a vital substance.

 

What does cholesterol do?

Cholesterol is a component of every single cell membrane in the body. It is like a wedge that holds cell membranes together, giving them both stability and the fluidity they need to function. Cholesterol is needed to repair existing cells as well as to make new ones. Any kind of trauma, injury or surgery triggers an increase in cholesterol production, because it is needed for repair.

All steroid hormones, for example cortisol, oestrogen and testosterone as well as neurotransmitters, are made from cholesterol, and so is vitamin D. Steroid hormones regulate energy production, metabolism, hydration, reproduction, behaviour and emotions, the formation of brain, muscle and bone. All rather important … Vitamin D is needed to make healthy bone, protects us from cancer and heart disease, high blood pressure and arthritis.  

The brain makes up 2% of our body weight, but contains 25% of the body’s cholesterol. The substance is part of the myelin sheath, the fatty insulation of nerve cells and allows them to transmit impulses. They would not function without cholesterol.

Cholesterol is a major component of bile, an emulsifier made in the liver that is needed for the proper digestion of fat.

Cholesterol is even involved in immune function. It is found in high concentration in ‘memory cells’ – those cells of our immune system that ‘remember’ a pathogen encountered before. They recognise it and raise the alarm, triggering an immune response.

 

Can cholesterol be too low?

Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is a rare genetic condition affecting cholesterol synthesis – children born with this are severely disabled and have a low life expectancy as the brain is underdeveloped. Somewhere between ‘too high’, ‘healthy’ and ‘death’ there has to be a ‘too low’, you would think.

Low cholesterol may contribute to forgetfulness, disorientation, confusion – often seen as normal signs of ageing. The American astronaut and NASA doctor Duane Graveline experienced retrograde amnesia when his cholesterol had been lowered by statin drugs. He was temporarily unable to remember his home address, recognise his wife and children, or remember his job. He stopped taking the drug and his brain function returned to normal. Dr Malcolm Kendrick has written about Dr Graveline on his blog.

Studies have found higher rates of death from unnatural causes (suicide, manslaughter, murder) in people with low cholesterol levels (⩽165 mg/dl or 4.2 mmol/l) (1).  

What’s more: Elevated cholesterol levels appear to be protective in older people. A 2017 systematic review of the literature (3) found that high LDL cholesterol is inversely related to mortality in people over 60 years of age, meaning: the higher your LDL once you’re over 60, the longer you live. This is most likely – as more than a dozen of the reviewed research papers found –because LDL binds to and inactivates a broad range of microorganisms and their toxic products. In other words: Cholesterol protects the elderly from infectious diseases. The full text of this review is available online. Click here to read it.

Considering how vital cholesterol is for life, it stands to reason that it can indeed be too low. Low cholesterol is associated with a number of diseases, but is most commonly caused by statin drugs. It’s not easy to find literature on where the bottom line is, but what little research there is puts it at around 4.0 mmol/l (2, 3). 

So there you have it. Cholesterol is not all bad. In fact it seems to be more good than bad.  

Just in time for National Cholesterol Month, Dr Mark Hyman welcomed British cardiologist Dr Aseem Malhotra on his podcast “The Doctor’s Pharmacy” this week. It’s not all about cholesterol, in fact it is more about bias in research - the two cover a lot of ground - but either way it’s worth having a listen. Click here for the podcast.

If you would like to learn more about cholesterol, here’s a handy reading list of books that take a critical view on the current paradigm.

 

(1) Psychosomatic Medicine 2000;62 - Epidemiology 2001 Mar;12:168-72 - Annals of Internal Medicine (1998;128(6):478-487), The Journal of the American Medical Association (1997;278:313-321)

(2) Nago et al (2011): Low cholesterol is associated with mortality from stroke, heart disease, and cancer: the Jichi Medical School Cohort Study. Journal of Epidemiology 2011:21(1):67-74.

(3) Ravnskov et al (2017): Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review. BMJ Open 2016;6:e010401. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-01040 (Free Full Text)

(4) Hamazaki T, Okuyama H, et al (2015): Towards a Paradigm Shift in Cholesterol Treatment. A re-examination of the Cholesterol Issue in Japan. Ann Nutr Metab 2015:66 Suppl 4:1-116. doi: 10.1159/000381654

(5) Lv YB, Yin ZX et al (2016): Serum Cholesterol Levels within the High Normal Range Are Associated with Better Cognitive Performance among Chinese Elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2016 Mar;20(3):280-7. doi: 10.1007/s12603-016-0701-6. (Free Full Text)

(6) Mufti RM, Balon R, Arfken CL (2006): Low cholesterol and violence. Psychiatric Services

(7) Ravnskov, Uffe (2003): High cholesterol may protect against infections and atherosclerosis. Qjm 96.12 (2003): 927-934. 

(8) Ravnskov U, McCully KS, Rosch PF (2011): The statin-low cholesterol-cancer conundrum. QJM (2011): hcr243

 

 

 

 

Ketogenic Diets are back

You’ve probably read the headlines and wondered whether you should take the plunge if the results – steady and sustainable weight loss and improvement of health markers - are really that dramatic and that easy. But are they, though? This post will give you the inside line on what the diet involves, whether it’s healthy and even sustainable for ‘normal’ people. Here goes …

The ketogenic diet is the ultimate low carb diet. It advocates a moderate protein intake and is very high in fat. It is similar to the Atkins diet, but it as a more modern version of it, now with a solid scientific basis. Both are very low carbohydrate diets, but the Atkins diet tends to be higher in protein, whereas keto somewhat restricts protein in favour of fat. Recent research over the last decade or so has provided evidence of the therapeutic potential of ketogenic diets in many health conditions, including diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), acne, neurological conditions - particularly epilepsy - and the management of respiratory and cardio-vascular risk factors.

Although dieters tend to lose weight, there is more of an emphasis of the ketogenic diet as a therapeutic diet, which may improve compliance for those that follow it for health reasons.

Like the Atkins diet, the ketogenic diet aims at keeping the body in permanent ketosis. Let’s take a look at what that actually is …

Glucose is the easiest molecule for your body to convert and use as energy so that it will be chosen over any other energy source. Insulin – a hormone made in the pancreas – is produced to process the glucose in your bloodstream by taking it into the cells. It’s the fat-storage hormone produced in direct proportion to the type and quality of carbs consumed. When you lower the intake of carbs in your diet, you force the body into a state of ketosis.

Ketosis is a natural process that helps you survive when food intake is low. When in this state, you produce ketone bodies or ketones, which are produced from the breakdown of fats in the liver. They are an alternative source of energy, when glucose is not available. Energy from ketones works just as well and feels no different – better, if anything, and the brain actually prefers ketones.

Photo by  Katherine Chase  on  Unsplash

Photo by Katherine Chase on Unsplash

What do you eat?

The ketogenic diet is largely based on protein and fat, and is filling and satisfying. This means no hunger cravings and consistent energy levels.

The downside is the diet is very strict. Cutting out carbs means more than just avoiding the bread, pasta, rice and potatoes that we think of as carbohydrates, but also other foods including many fruits and a number of starchy vegetables and even some nuts, such as cashews. What you might not be prepared for is having to cut back on alcohol. It’s not about cutting it out entirely – spirits are OK, but you have to watch the sugary mixers, and champagne and wine are not so bad in moderation, but a lot depends on your individual sensitivity to carbs. Your favourite cappuccino or latte may also be out.  

 

IN

Meat, fish, poultry, eggs.

Leafy Greens like spinach and kale.

Above-ground vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, leeks, peppers, etc.

High Fat Dairy like hard cheeses, cream, butter, etc.

Nuts and seeds 

Avocado

Berries – raspberries, strawberries, blueberries blackberries, and other low GL berries

Other fats – coconut oil, high-fat salad dressing, saturated fats, etc.

 

OUT

Grains like wheat, rye, oats, corn, rice, barley.

Pulses such as chickpeas, soya, kidney beans, lentils.

Sugars: honey, agave, maple syrup.

Fruit like apples, bananas, oranges.

Potato, sweet potato, carrots, beetroot, etc.

 

Getting into ketosis

For most people, a ketogenic diet means that carbs are restricted to no more than 20g per day, however not everyone is equally sensitive to carbohydrates and some can get away with up to 50g. You’ll have to test where your carb threshold lies by measuring ketone bodies in the urine, blood or breath.  

You might be reading this thinking, ‘I can do this’, but the reality can be very testing. It can, in fact, take 4 weeks to get there and during the transition period many experience ‘keto flu’ – flu-like symptoms, headaches, tiredness, and weakness. This happens when the body runs out of glucose and has not yet learned to switch to using fat for energy – that’s because it hasn’t had to for such a long time. Until you become ‘fat adapted’ (i.e. your body has re-learned to use fat), there is a period of low energy. It is this taxing time that can put people off.

The people that do best on a ketogenic diet are those with a really compelling reason to do it, perhaps one of the chronic health conditions this diet can help. The rest of us mere mortals may struggle to be committed enough to get into and stay in ketosis. At the same time, be aware that the ketogenic diet may not be for you, for example if you are on insulin or blood pressure lowering medication. Make sure to educate yourself first to be safe.

If you are keen to find out more about ketogenic diets or if you'd like to book a complimentary call to discuss which approach to weight loss would best suit you, please do get in touch.